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G20: Will world leaders finally commit to solving the environmental crisis?

Avery Maloto

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Today, 20 of the world’s most powerful nations will meet at the annual G20 Summit in Osaka, Japan. From June 28-29, 2019, important industrialized and developing countries will partake in the event. These countries will include nations such as Germany, China, and the United States. During the two day meeting, representatives will discuss key issues present in the global economy. While tackling themes such as employment, trade, and investment, this year’s agenda is taking a greener turn. Alongside other important topics, “environment and energy” is listed as a major theme at the G20 summit, where many world leaders will commence.

Past G20 Summits

Climate change has been a recurring topic at the G20 Summit since 2014.
Climate change has been a recurring topic at the G20 Summit since 2014.

This is not the first time the environment caught the eye of world leaders. In fact, climate change has been a recurring topic at the G20 Summit since 2014. Since then, much progress has been made. With nations taking strides together to combat the environmental problem, the last 5 years hold promising efforts.

Here is what we know from past G20 Summits:

  • November 15-16, 2014 — Brisbane, Queensland, Australia
    • Although not on the official agenda, Europe and the United States begin to pressure the group on acting against climate change. 
  • September 4-5, 2016 — Hangzhou, China
    • The United States and China ratify the Paris Climate Change Agreement. Both of the countries are the two biggest emitters of greenhouse gases to this day. Announcing the United States’ support, President Obama stated that the agreement was ‘[giving us] the best possible shot to save the one planet we’ve got”.
  • July 7-8, 2017 — Hamburg, Germany
    • The 2017 meeting focused heavily on climate change. Despite Obama’s commitment in the past, President Trump announces his intention to withdraw from the Paris Climate Agreement. Although he left many leaders fearing global fate, future discussions acknowledge the one-year waiting period before a withdrawal takes effect. With this, the earliest the United States can officially exit the agreement is November 4, 2020. 
  • November 30 – December 1, 2018 — Buenos Aires, Argentina
    • By this meeting, all countries except the United States reaffirmed their commitment to the Paris Climate Accord. 

It is obvious that The Paris Climate Agreement is one of the Summit’s greatest successes thus far. As of January 2019, 184 parties have ratified the agreement and are committed to the responsibilities outlined in the deal. The most important of these responsibilities is ensuring that the global temperature does not rise an additional 2 degrees Celcius. If such an increase were to occur, it would mean [detrimental] fates for ecosystems around the world. 

Support For Climate Reform Mounts Ahead of the G20

In the days leading up to the G20 Summit, many of the 20 nations are affirming their support towards climate change reform. Taking powerful stances across the globe, world leaders are creating change through actions and not just words.

Threats from France

From Paris, President Emmanuel Macron of France threatened to not sign any joint statement from the G20 Summit unless it deals with the environmental issue.

President Emmanuel Macron threatens to not sign any joint statement from the G20 Summit unless it deals with the environmental issue.
President Emmanuel Macron threatens to not sign any joint statement from the G20 Summit unless it deals with the environmental issue.

Just this past Wednesday, Mr. Macron noted that climate change is a “red line”. Speaking to a group of French Citizens in Japan, he threatens that “if [the group doesn’t] speak about the Paris Agreement, and if, to come to an agreement in a meeting of 20, we are no longer able to defend our climate goals, it will be without France”.

Continuing to speak to his people, he alluded to United States’ unofficial rejection of the agreement. Without naming President Trump, Mr. Macron states that “some won’t sign, that’s their business. But we shouldn’t collectively lose our ambitions”.

Japan Plays Catch-Up

Although hosting the G20 summit, Japan has a lot of work to do when it comes to environmental policy. Unfortunately, the country has a large plastic problem.

Last summer, Japan was one of two countries to fail to sign the G-7 Plastics Charter. Back then, they were heavily criticized for rejecting the legislation. However, Japan is finally taking a stand.

In the final months before the two-day event, Japanese officials have been working to play catch-up to other countries. While nations such as Canada, China, and the United States have already implemented plastic policies in the past, Japan is just starting.

At a rapid speed, officials are pumping out endorsements. Soon, the ideas of banning single-use plastics, researching for plastic alternatives, and cleaning up beaches will be a reality.

G20 Leaders Must Act

Environmental policy is a topic that won’t go away anytime soon. Unfortunately, each passing day without reform threatens the health of man and nature. There is no doubt, time is becoming limited. However, there is no doubt that world leaders are taking note of the severity of the problem.

The next two days have the potential to create global, long-lasting solutions for the planet. Hopefully, the 20 nations representing the world will act accordingly.

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Australia Gets Flamed For Neglecting The Climate Emergency In The Pacific

Rich Bowden

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Australia gets flamed for its climate inaction

Former Tuvalu Prime Minister Enele Sopoaga has re-opened the controversy over Australia’s high-handed approach at this year’s Pacific Islands Forum. Australia has been accused of trying to silence Pacific leaders, like Sopoaga, who are demanding it to do more to combat climate change.

Tuvalu hosted the Pacific Islands Forum in August. 

At the forum, Australia pressured Sopoaga among other pro-climate action leaders from the Pacific, to accept a watered-down communique. Many leaders believe it would do little to combat the climate emergency in the Pacific.

Australia not tackling the Pacific’s unique climate challenges

Sopoaga told Australia’s SBS News he thought hosting the PIF forum in Tuvalu would highlight the challenges facing smaller Pacific nations. He said he sought to show countries like Australia the existential threat climate change poses to low-lying countries like Tuvalu.

However, he regretted that support was not forthcoming. Further, he didn’t like that Pacific leaders who spoke out on climate change had the chance to accept hush money.

“Putting this money on the table … and then expecting Pacific Island countries like Tuvalu to say ‘OK, we’ll stop talking about climate change’ … is completely irresponsible,” he added.

Sopoaga said action was needed at domestic level in countries such as Australia to have any effect.

“Any amount of money that is coming with the Step-Up [Pacific aid program] cannot be seen as an excuse for no action at a domestic level to cut down on greenhouse emissions.”

Climate change poses an existential threat to Tuvalu

Tuvalu, like a number of low-lying Pacific micro-nations, is under threat from climate change. The sea has almost claimed two of the nine islands. And with the highest point only 4.6 meters above sea level, locals fear they will one day be completely swamped. 

Home to just 11,000 people and an average of just 6.6 feet above sea level, Tuvalu is in danger. In fact, its people are already making plans to evacuate should sea levels rise further.

Sopoaga has previously rejected offers to relocate the people, saying it won’t make a significant difference.

“Moving outside of Tuvalu will not solve any climate change issues,” Sopoaga says. He adds, “If you put these people in the middle of industrialized countries it will simply boost their consumptions and increase greenhouse gas emissions,” as he told The Guardian in May. 

Sopoaga’s term as Tuvalu PM came to an end last month after losing a vote in the country’s parliament. The expectation is that his successor, Kausea Natano, will continue the call to action from the world on climate change.

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Brexit Is Overshadowing Climate Activism

Haider Sarwar

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Brexit

Due to the ongoing Brexit crisis in the United Kingdom, discussions regarding climate change legislation has been postponed. The European Union meets four times a year in Brussels, Belgium, and this past week the British Parliament asked for yet another extension on formulating a plan to decarbonize by 2050.

The 2050 Plan

In November 2018, the EU proposed to have its total carbon emissions reach a net-zero by 2050. This was a move unique to the EU, and it sought to motivate other countries such as the US and Brazil to follow its footsteps. Over half the members of the EU, including the UK, have signed onto this plan.

Critics have deemed this plan as ambitious and near impossible. Moreover, there is a lot of pressure on European governments from large industries. Still, there is hope for the EU to reach this goal as many of the members are adamant about decarbonizing all of Europe. The biggest obstacle to this plan, however, is the countries’ internal affairs. The prime example of this is the UK’s notorious Brexit plan.

Brexit’s Prolonged Existence

In June 2016, a referendum on whether to leave the European Union was held in the UK. Then, 51.6% of people voted to leave. Ever since, deals illustrating better ways for the UK to leave the EU have been proposed. Both the EU and the UK have shared and torn apart these deals. Today, the disagreements persist with a very obscure future. 

It is partly because of this ongoing issue that the EU was unable to present a proper plan for decarbonization at the UN climate summit last month. The aforementioned meeting in Brussels also illustrated that the UK won’t adopt the decarbonization plan. Many EU officials have expressed annoyance towards the UK for this reason. Climate activist Greta Thunberg further argued that if politicians and governments were serious about tackling climate change, they would not spend their time “talking about taxes and Brexit.”

The adoption of the 2050 plan from the UK is being pushed to take place in 2020. The EU has little interest in refusing the UK of an extension, too. This is because a chaotic no-deal scenario would be initiated by the EU, which would be less than advantageous. 

Internal issues such as Brexit have been an obstacle to the EU’s proposed climate action for years, now. It is essential for Great Britain to pull itself out of the ongoing issue to create a plan for the future.

Will The UK Set Aside Politics To Focus On Climate Change?

Many activists wish to see countries such as the UK set aside their politics to focus on more important issues like climate change. It is unclear how long it will take for the UK and the EU to finally reach an agreement about Brexit, but there is hope that this extension will be the last one.

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Congress Unveils First Bill To Address Climate Refugee Crisis

Ari Kelo

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Climate refugee

On Wednesday, the U.S. House of Representatives introduced a new bill to protect climate refugees.

The Climate Displaced Persons Act, written by Rep. Nydia Velázquez (D-N.Y.), would create a new federal program specifically for refugees displaced by climate change. If enacted into law, the U.S. would take in at least 50,000 climate refugees each year, beginning in 2020.

Although long overdue, backlash from both President Trump and the Republican-led Senate may stall any attempts to turn this bill into law. Regardless, this bill provides an important blueprint for future policies on climate-related migration.

And notably, this bill is the first of its kind to address the growing number of migrants displaced by climate change.

What is the Climate Displaced Persons Act?

Written in reaction to the rising number of people displaced by climate-related catastrophes, this bill would create an action plan on how the U.S. can help.

Since 2009, a climate-related disaster has displaced about one person every second. This rate accounts for extreme weather events, famine, drought, and rising sea levels, among other climate emergencies.

Overwhelmingly, 22.5 million people have been displaced due to climate change in the past decade. And the UN speculates that number could rise to 200 million forcibly displaced people by 2050.

Accordingly, this bill has two major aims. It intends to “establish a Global Climate Change Resilience Strategy and authorize the admission of climate-displaced persons,” according to its first draft.

In particular, the bill entails the U.S. taking on more responsibility in handling the global crisis.

It would create a humanitarian program separate from the U.S. refugee admissions program, specifically for those affected by climate change. The new program would guarantee the same benefits for climate refugees.

The legislation would also task the Secretary of State with devising a Global Climate Change Resilience Strategy. This is turn will create a Coordinator of Climate Resilience position within the State Department.

If made law, the bill will also provide a minimum of 50,000 climate migrants resettlement opportunities in the U.S. each year.

New legislation for climate refugees

To Rep. Velázquez, immigration policy must acknowledge the role of climate change.

“If we are going to meaningfully discuss comprehensive climate equity and climate justice, we must inject security assistance and resettlement opportunities for climate-displaced persons into our conversations,” she said in a press release.

So far, the U.S. has failed in this cause. Just last month, President Trump reduced the maximum refugee cap to 18,000 — a new low. And with his administration tightening up on immigration of all kinds, it’s unlikely he’ll loosen up on climate-related migration, to say the least.

But President Trump’s refusal to support climate science or immigration hasn’t dissuaded Rep. Velázquez.

“Despite this Administration’s efforts to strip the world’s most vulnerable populations of refuge, America will continue to stand tall as a safe haven for immigrants,” she insisted.

After its introduction on Wednesday, the House referred the bill to the Committee on Foreign Affairs. The Committees on the Judiciary and Energy and Commerce will also review the bill before the House continues its deliberation.

Democrat Edward Markey, a key supporter of the Green New Deal, has introduced a companion bill in the Senate.

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