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Where Does This Year’s Earth Day Leave Us?

Avery Maloto

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earth

At a time where Elvis Presley and President Richard Nixon sat together in the Oval Office, US Senator Gaylord Nelson inspired the world. Engaging the public, Nelson would truly begin what would be one of the polarizing conversations of today: the environment.

In 1970, US Senator Gaylord Nelson implemented a national day of environmental education and activism. Forty-nine years later, Earth Day continues to be celebrated across the United States in its own modern take.

Climate Discussion Gets Heated

Nelson realized that change was necessary. For years, he fought for a platform to address the deterioration of our environment. In his own words, “the most important environmental issue is one that is rarely mentioned, and that is the lack of a conservation ethic in our culture”.  Leading a mission to combat this very issue, Nelson’s work was dedicated to progressing society out of environmental apathy. Despite his successes, today’s society is struggling to uphold Nelson’s hopes.

In an interview with his daughter, Tia Nelson, she exposes the sad reality of the country’s current status. “He certainly would be deeply distressed by the further erosion of bipartisan support for environmental protections… he would be sad and concerned about how partisan the issue has become”, she states. 

Thoughts From Activist Tia Nelson

Furthering the discussion, she says “he saw the right to drink clean water and breathe clean air as fundamental inalienable rights of every American, and rights that the government is obligated to protect in the same way that we expect the government to provide for our public safety and national security”.

The truth Tia Nelson brings to the light is nothing but eye-opening to the lifestyle of the world. Although US Senator Gaylord Nelson wished for a green and healthy lifestyle for every American, current trends illustrate heart-breaking realities.

The climate discussion has since turned into a climate debate, and additionally, a deeply partisan one too.

Whether through water pollution, soil erosion, or air pollution, it is evident there is a lot of room for improvement.

What Can You Do To Help?

Since the first Earth Day, the environment is deteriorating at a rapid rate. Unsurprisingly, the world still combating the same problems as half a century ago. However, each individual has the ability and responsibility to care for the environment. Here are some easy suggestions to go green:

  • Reduce Your Greenhouse Gas Emissions
    • The average vehicle emits 4.6 metric tons of carbon dioxide per year. While gas emissions contribute to the greenhouse effect, driving is causing the Earth’s temperature to rise. When possible, ditch the car and take a nice walk to your next destination.
  • Reuse and Recycle
    • Plastic waste can take up to 1000 years to decompose. With plastic pollution accumulating in Earth’s ecosystems, trillions of individual plastic particles float in water sources each year. To reduce emitted waste and pollution, swap out disposable plastic for reusable items.
  • Conserve Your Water Usage
    • With the current consumption rate, the world will be facing mass water shortages by 2025. To prevent stressing water systems or using excess energy, be conscious of your daily water usage. Time your showers, turn off your tap when not in use, and fix household leaks. Any form of conservation helps.

Conclusions

The decline of our environment has been a topic of conversation for far too long. For generations, man continues to destroy ecosystem after ecosystem. We all walk on the same soil and breathe the same air; We share the world we live in. For the sake of the future generations, it is up to each and every one of us to initiate change.

Together, let’s make each future Earth Day is greener than the last.

From everyone at The Rising, Happy Earth Day!

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Sustainability

Climate Change Is Allowing A Deadly Virus To Kill Marine Animals

Avery Maloto

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PDV is killing seals and other marine animals.

As climate change continues to melt sea ice, people, particularly in coastal regions are becoming increasingly worried about being cities going underwater in the future; but now, it appears that there is another problem: melting sea ice is also allowing a deadly virus to spread and kill marine animals. That virus is PDV, or phocine distemper virus, a deadly virus that is spreading among rapidly in the Arctic waters.

While this virus continues to infect rapid and lethal rate, the disease is causing many scientists to scratch their heads. How is it traveling so quickly? And how is climate change playing a role in its rapid spread?

What Is PDV And How Is It Impacting Marine Animals?

PDV has been notorious for infecting seal populations for the last few decades. Since 1988, it has caused multiple mass deaths within the marine animal population. At an alarming rate, tens of thousands of marine animals are falling victim to PDV.

Once isolated, the virus is now circulating in seal species across the globe. 

With the use of 15 years of data that tracked 2,530 live and 165 dead marine animals of multiple regions, scientists began searching for an explanation for PDV’s infectious trend. 

PDV Outbreaks Linked To Reduction Of Sea Ice

In a recent study published by Nature, researchers linked the viral emergence in marine animals to Arctic sea ice reduction. Offering an answer to the head-scratching situation, the authors found that the melting of ice is opening-up previously blocked pathways in the Arctic Circle. 

Throughout their experiment, the researchers focused on samples from animals living in icy habitats. These include spotted seals, bearded seals, steller sea lions, northern fur, seals, and northern sea otters.

In 2003, the scientists identified a widespread exposure to and infection of PDV in the North Pacific Ocean. Six years later in 2009, the second peak of PDV exposure had infected marine animals in connected regions.

These trends were directly related to the reduction of Arctic sea ice.

Many times, Arctic ice acts as a barrier between ocean regions. However, once melted, there is no longer a physical separation between ecosystems.

With new paths of travel, the increase of marine animal mobility leads to the transmission of PDV among sea life. As there becomes more contact between the Arctic and sub-arctic marine animals, the two regions are continuing to infect once-healthy populations.

More Than One Way Of Exposing Marine Animals To Disease

Unfortunately, there is more than one way that the melting of sea ice is introducing diseases into the environment and impacting marine animals.

Through Earth’s rising temperatures, many bodies of ice are beginning to thaw for the first time in decades. Remarkably, viruses have the ability to survive a long time in frigid environments.

Under the right conditions, previously frozen organisms have a high probability of becoming re-exposed to the environment. Despite being dormant for a long period of time, these diseases may return at a similar infectious level as before.

For example, in 2014, two scientists resurrected the largest virus ever seen. After extracting the ancient virus from a 30,000-year-old sample of ice, the disease was still infections despite centuries of lying dormant.  

Summary

Fortunately, PDV-positive marine animals lie in colder waters. As a result, sea animals in warmer regions are most likely safe from PDV.

However, scientists still believe the spread of pathogens could become more common as ice continues to melt with the increased opportunity to affect more species.

To stop this infectious trend, the obvious answer is to put a halt on melting sea ice. In order to do this, each and every population has to become educated on the causes of climate change and preventative solutions.

Instead of having to learn to adapt, let us work to ensure marine animals are able to live in the quality of life they deserve.

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Sustainability

To Truly Be Environmentally Friendly, You Should Know What Your Clothes Are Made Of

Florian Heubrandner

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Most of us want to be more environmentally friendly in our daily lives; plastic straws make us shudder, we take our reusable coffee cup everywhere and haven’t used a plastic bag since 2010. But what about fashion? How do we make the right wardrobe choices for the environment?

Since being named one of the worst polluters, the fashion industry is finding ways to become more environmentally friendly. The various production phases involve making fabrics from harmful chemicals, causing water and air pollution. Some of the large-scale industrial processes even require large amounts of water and energy. Textile waste is another big issue with tons piled into landfill sites taking centuries to biodegrade.

As a result, more brands and companies are choosing cleaner materials and opting for more ethical practices. Fiber manufacturers, who are the start of the production value chain, are also putting more effort to develop sustainable, feel-good fibers from sustainably sourced wood, a renewable and naturally biodegradable material. Top fashion brands and designers, such as Zara, H&M and Stella McCartney are now choosing sustainable fibers in selected collections.

However, there are many unfamiliar names for fabric types and deciphering the sustainable ones can be a minefield.

Knowing What Is Truly Sustainable

It’s confusing. From the origin of raw materials, sourcing process to production, there are many factors determining how sustainable a piece of garment can be.

Some materials such as polyester and nylon are widely known as not sustainable due to their synthetic nature and non-biodegradability.

However, even if the source is botanical, some production processes of the raw material may involve practices that ultimately weaken the industry’s ability to sustain future production. Take cotton for example. While it starts life as a plant and seems to be sustainable, cotton-growing is a water-intensive process and has a very large water footprint.

According to the WWF, companies use up over 20,000 liters of water to produce just 1kg of cotton, equivalent to a single T-shirt and a pair of jeans.

Viscose, also known as rayon, is another plant-based fiber. It is popular in the fashion industry as a cheaper and more durable alternative to silk. Also, the industry often considers it a sustainable alternative to cotton and polyester.

While viscose is derived from an organic origin, wood pulp from regenerative trees like eucalyptus is manufactured unsustainably. Those processes inevitably contribute to the rapid depletion of the world’s forests.

Estimates show that wood that is sourced from endangered or ancient forests makes up about 30% of viscose used in the fashion industry. Those sourcing methodologies could also pose risks to habitats and endangered species.

There Are Environmentally Friendly Alternatives

There are alternatives. As technology progresses and processes are becoming more advanced, new materials are created. For example, the Lenzing’s ECOVERO™ Viscose fibers are an alternative to common viscose.

During the production of these fibers, it is possible to recover and reuse certain chemicals. And by doing so, it is possible to reduce emissions by 50% and use half as much energy and water than the production of common viscose.

Many fashion brands have started to use eco-viscose fibers in their collections, such as Japan’s Global Work, India’s Max Fashion and Germany’s Armedangels, plus many more.

Check Before You Wreck

From now on, opt for garments made from sustainable or recycled fibers, organic cotton, hemp, and linen with natural dyes. Also, armed with knowledge on common viscose and its issues, you can look for items made from eco-viscose fibers instead.

Bear in mind that some natural materials such as cotton and wool might still have their own ethical issues around environmental sustainability. For instance, those concerns can include labor rights and animal welfare.

To tackle those concerns, more brands and retailers are being more transparent about their supply chains. Specifically, 70 out of 200 major fashion brands published a list of their first-tier manufacturers.

This is an encouraging step towards a more transparent supply chain and materials that are traceable back to their roots. As the call for improved transparency across the fashion industry is stronger than ever, supply chain openness will soon be the norm and definitely something to be proud of. And our own purchase decisions will become more informed and more ethical. 

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Sustainability

The Way We Celebrate Holidays Has Serious Consequences On Environmental Sustainability

Maryanne Derkaloustian

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The holidays have a real bearing on environmental sustainability.

The holiday season is always a great time of the year, with families getting together and celebrating for another year’s worth of progress; but amidst those festivities, it is easy to forget about environmental sustainability. And this consideration applies globally, not just for those celebrating Christmas, Thanksgiving, and the like.

We saw this with this year’s Diwali celebrations in New Delhi, India. Diwali, an important celebration enjoyed by Hindus, showed by example that all of our actions have consequences.

New Delhi is known to have high air pollution levels, but during Diwali this year, they were sky-high even for India’s standards. The countless firecrackers set off for Diwali elevated New Delhi to roughly 20 times the World Health Organization’s “safe” level, sparking even more global concern. Consequently, the Environment Pollution (Prevention and Control) Authority (EPCA) quickly declared it a public health hazard and imposed a ban on bursting crackers during winter.

With many more holidays coming soon, it begs the question: How do holidays like Thanksgiving, Christmas, and New Year’s impact environmental sustainability?

Holiday Festivities Unusually Pollute The Environment

Because fireworks are the main source of pollution during Diwali, it was easier to pinpoint them as the root cause. Though you wouldn’t necessarily think of Christmas and Thanksgiving as similar holidays, they aren’t innocent of harming the environment either.

Wood burning during the holidays serves many purposes (cooking, warmth, aesthetics, etc.), but sadly, these all come at a price. In London alone, this accounts for 7-9 percent of particle pollution during the season. But this doesn’t go to say that going completely electric will save our lungs.

Holiday Festivities Result Health-Threatening Emissions

Heating cooking utensils and electric stoves lead to ultrafine particle emissions. These particles pose serious cardiovascular and inflammatory risks, especially since their small size allows them to easily penetrate deep into the respiratory tract.

A more hidden threat is the spike in the use of personal care products and cosmetics. It can be incredibly easy to overlook these, especially since their purpose is self-care and enhancement.

Unfortunately, they emit volatile organic compounds that can have a variety of dangerous side effects ranging from dizziness to central nervous system damage when inhaled.

Only a few of the chemicals involved like benzene and toluene have been studied in this light, so the prospect of other compounds used being hazardous is unsettling.

We Leave Other Types Of Waste Too

Waste of all kinds also peaks during the holidays. The scariest part of Halloween, for instance, is the amount of plastic left behind from candy wrappers.

Costumes that are only ever worn once completely go against all the progress made in sustainable fashion. Food waste can also reach dangerous highs between Thanksgiving and New Year’s. The US wastes roughly 40% of food, but an extra 5 million pounds are added on during the holidays.

Holidays Overseas See Incredible Environmental Impacts Too

Records of deaths by air pollution were already at a fearsome high before Diwali. However, during Diwali this year, people increasingly already felt short of breath and on the verge of choking. Fine particulate matter (PM 2.5) levels shot up, reaching 600 micrograms per cubic meter. In context, the Delhi Pollution Control Committee’s data easily deems it an unsafe amount.

The number of people who have to cut back from work due to these conditions is only going up. Although using firecrackers is less common now, families are still buying them in the black market. And that’s a problem that can’t be easily solved.

Summary

As we continue to celebrate the holidays year after year, we can still do so in a way that is conscious of the implications our actions have on environmental sustainability.

And though the holidays are a special part of the year, that doesn’t mean we get to forget about the pressing issues of air pollution and plastic waste, just to name a few.

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